UPSC Essentials: The weekly news express

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A news-laden week comes to an end. Check retired the indispensable play news, categorized arsenic per the UPSC syllabus and consolidate your CSE preparation.

GS I-Indian civilization covers the salient features of Literature, Art Forms, and Architecture from past to modern times

ASI’s excavations astatine the Harappan tract of Rakhigarhi

Key takeaways from the news:

-The latest circular of excavations revealed the operation of immoderate houses, lanes and drainage systems, and a jewellery-making unit. Pieces of copper, golden jewellery, terracotta toys, earthen pots, and seals were besides found.

-This is the first-time excavations person been done connected Mound No. 3, which has revealed “an aristocratic settlement”.

– The excavation aims to recognize Rakhigarhi and place the individuality and interrelationship of the 7 mounds. Also, to marque Rakhigarhi accessible to radical by exposing the structural remains and conserving them for the future, on with providing amenities to the visitors.

– Rakhigarhi is an archaeological tract belonging to the mature signifier of the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating to 2600-1900 BCE. It was among the largest settlements of the past civilization, though astir of it remains unexcavated. The tract is located successful the Ghaggar-Hakra River plain.

– Rakhigarhi is successful Haryana’s Hisar district. Rakhigarhi is among the 5 iconic sites announced by Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman during her Budget Speech successful February 2020.

-The different iconic sites are Hastinapur successful Uttar Pradesh, Sivasagar successful Assam, Dholavira successful Gujarat, and Adichanallur successful Tamil Nadu.

Point to ponder: Why are the caller excavations astatine Rakhigarhi important for the past of Indus Civilization?

Carbon dating of excavated finds successful Tamil Nadu reveals that Iron was utilized successful India 4,200 years ago.

Key takeaways from the news:

– The earliest grounds of robust usage was from 1900-2000 BCE for the country, and from 1500 BCE for Tamil Nadu.

-The latest grounds dates the findings from Tamil Nadu to 2172 BCE.

– The excavations are from Mayiladumparai adjacent Krishnagiri successful Tamil Nadu, astir 100 km southbound of Bengaluru. Mayiladumparai is an important tract with taste worldly dating backmost betwixt the Microlithic (30,000 BCE) and Early Historic (600 BCE) ages.

-With the latest grounds tracing our Iron Age to 2000 BCE from 1500 BC, we tin presume that our taste seeds were laid successful 2000 BCE.

Point to ponder: Why is the grounds robust truthful important to reconstruct the past?

GS I- Salient features of Indian Society, Social empowerment, Role of women and women’s organization

A two-judge Bench of the Delhi High Court has delivered a divided verdict successful a batch of petitions challenging the objection provided to marital rape successful the Indian Penal Code

Key takeaways from the news:

-Section 375 defines rape and lists 7 notions of consent that, if vitiated, would represent the discourtesy of rape by a man. However, the proviso contains a important exemption: “Sexual intercourse oregon intersexual acts by a antheral with his ain wife, the woman not being nether eighteen years of age, is not rape.”

-This exemption fundamentally allows a marital close to a hubby who tin with ineligible authorisation workout his close to consensual oregon non-consensual enactment with his wife.

-The exemption is besides nether situation earlier the Gujarat High Court connected the grounds that it undermines the consent of a pistillate based connected her marital status. Separately, the Karnataka HC has allowed the framing of marital rape charges against a antheral contempt the exemption successful the law.

Point to ponder: What does a divided verdict mean?

GS I- Important Geophysical phenomena specified arsenic earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclones etc., geographical features and their location- changes successful captious geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and successful flora and fauna and the effects of specified changes.

Cyclone Asani

Key takeaways from the news:

-The Indian Meteorological Department has predicted the cyclone Asani to intensify into a ‘severe cyclone’ implicit Southeast regions of Bay of Bengal.

-The sanction Cyclone Asani has been fixed by Sri Lanka. It means ‘wrath’ successful Sinhalese.

-Cyclones that Hit India successful 2020-21: Tauktae, Yaas, Nisarga, Amphan.

-India has a bi-annual cyclone play that occurs betwixt March to May and October to December. But connected uncommon occasions, cyclones bash hap successful June and September months.

-Cyclone Gulab became the 3rd cyclone of the 21st period to marque landfall implicit the eastbound seashore successful September, aft tropical cyclone Date successful 2018 and Pyarr successful 2005.

-Typically, tropical cyclones successful the North Indian Ocean portion (Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea) make during the pre- monsoon (April to June) and post-monsoon (October to December) periods.

-May-June and October-November are known to nutrient cyclones of terrible strength that impact the Indian coasts.

-The IMD classifies cyclones connected the ground of the Maximum Sustained Surface Wind Speed (MSW) they generate.

-The cyclones are classified arsenic terrible (MSW of 48-63 knots), precise terrible (MSW of 64-89 knots), highly terrible (MSW of 90-119 knots) and ace cyclonic storms (MSW of 120 knots oregon more). One knot is adjacent to 1.8 kmph (kilometers per hour).

-A tropicalis an aggravated circular tempest that originates implicit lukewarm tropical oceans and is characterized by debased atmospheric pressure, precocious winds, and dense rain.

-A diagnostic characteristic of tropical cyclones is the eye, a cardinal portion of wide skies, lukewarm temperatures, and debased atmospheric pressure.

-Storms of this benignant are called hurricanes successful the North Atlantic and eastbound Pacific and typhoons successful Southeast Asia and China. They are called tropical cyclones successful the southwest Pacific and Indian Ocean portion and Willy-willies successful north-western Australia.

-Storms rotate antagonistic clockwise successful the bluish hemisphere and clockwise successful the confederate hemisphere.

-The conditions favourable for the enactment and intensification of tropical storms are: ample oversea aboveground with somesthesia higher than 27° C, beingness of the coriolis force, tiny variations successful the vertical upwind speed, a pre-existing anemic low- unit country oregon low-level-cyclonic circulation oregon precocious divergence supra the oversea level system.

Point to ponder: How are cyclones named?

GS II- Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and organization and different measures

Worried India standing whitethorn crook junk, govt pushed ‘narrative management’ strategy

Key takeaways from the news:

-During the archetypal question of Covid-19 pandemic successful the mid-2020, the Ministry of Finance was drafting a strategy to antagonistic the “negative commentary” connected India by planetary think-tanks, indices, and media, amidst worries that this could pb to downgrading of sovereign standing to “junk”.

-In June 2020, past Principal Economic Advisor successful the Ministry of Finance, Sanjeev Sanyal, prepared a presumption — “Subjective Factors that interaction India’s Sovereign Ratings: What tin we bash astir it?” — for interior circulation wrong the government.

-Moody’s downgraded India connected June 1, 2020, from Baa2 to Baa3 (the lowest concern people of ratings) and maintained a antagonistic outlook.

-Fitch Ratings excessively revised India’s outlook to antagonistic from unchangeable successful June, 2020.

– Observing that astir reports successful 2019-20 projected a “negative commentary” connected India, the Ministry of Finance’s economical part prepared a strategy to antagonistic the “negative commentary” connected India by planetary think-tanks, indices, and media.

-Subsequently, the Central authorities reached retired to sovereign standing agencies.

-In October, 2021, Moody’s Investors Service raised the outlook connected India’s sovereign standing to ‘stable’ from ‘negative’ successful a revision aft astir 2 years, minimising the chances of immoderate standing downgrade.

-The presumption noted that 18-26 per cent of a country’s sovereign standing is based connected subjective factors specified arsenic assessments connected governance, governmental stability, regularisation of law, corruption, property freedom, and truthful on

-Rating agencies utilized the World Bank’s World Governance Indicators (WGI) arsenic a proxy for these subjective factors. Highlighting WGI arsenic the single-most important index, the inputs that spell into the making of the WGI were “arbitrary” and based connected impressions from the Western property oregon tiny surveys of NGOs and a fistful of academics.

-The WGI scores tally with a two-year lag. Hence, the latest disposable scores are for the twelvemonth 2018.

-There is simply a information that we whitethorn witnesser a driblet successful WGI scores owed to the latest antagonistic commentary connected India by deliberation tanks, survey agencies and planetary media.

-This could perchance downgrade our Sovereign Ratings to jun.

-Hence, it is of utmost value to scope retired to these deliberation tanks and survey agencies and acceptable a affirmative communicative astir India successful general.

Point to ponder: What are the Sovereign Credit Rating Agencies?

GS II- Statutory, regulatory and assorted quasi-judicial bodies

Aadhar can’t beryllium utilized successful constabulary investigations: UIDAI

Key takeaways from the news:

-The UIDAI was responding to a query from the Delhi High Court successful transportation with a 2018 robbery and execution astatine a jewellery store successful Delhi.

-The query came aft the prosecution sought to cognize if imaginable fingerprints and photographs of chartless accused could beryllium matched with the Aadhaar database to place the culprits.

-In an bid passed successful February, the High Court asked the UIDAI to respond whether the Aadhaar Act 2016 permits the same.

-The UIDAI said successful its affidavit that sharing oregon usage of biometric accusation for immoderate usage different than the procreation of the Aadhaar number, and authentication, is “impermissible”.

-Section 29 of the Aadhar Act places restrictions connected sharing accusation collected oregon created nether the Act.

-The UIDAI besides referred to regularisation 3 of the Aadhaar Act, which says “core biometric accusation collected by the Authority nether the Act shall not beryllium shared with anyone for immoderate crushed whatsoever”.

-The UIDAI besides added that it does not person the exertion to lucifer fingerprints etc recovered astatine the country of a transgression with those disposable connected its database.

-The UIDAI added that the biometrics accusation is lone utilized for de-duplication of residents and to guarantee uniqueness of Aadhaar number.

-The UIDAI submitted that arsenic per the mandate of the Aadhaar Act and the absorption of the Supreme Court, specified accusation cannot beryllium provided without giving an accidental of proceeding to the Aadhaar cardholder successful question.

Point to ponder: Why according to UIDAI Aadhaar beryllium utilized for constabulary investigation?

GS II- Government policies and interventions for improvement successful assorted sectors and issues arising retired of their plan and implementation

Sedition instrumentality and Supreme Court’s caller directives

Key takeaways from the news:

-The Supreme Court directed the Centre and states to support successful abeyance each pending trials, appeals, and proceedings with respect to the complaint framed nether Section 124 A of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), which deals with the offence of sedition, till the cardinal authorities completes the promised workout to reconsider and re-examine the provision.

-Section 124A defines sedition as: “Whoever, by words, either spoken oregon written, oregon by signs, oregon by disposable representation, oregon otherwise, brings oregon attempts to bring into hatred oregon contempt, oregon excites oregon attempts to excite disaffection towards, the Government estab­lished by instrumentality shall beryllium punished with im­prisonment for life, to which good whitethorn beryllium added…”

-The proviso besides contains 3 explanations:

1- The look “disaffection” includes disloyalty and each feelings of enmity

2- Comments expressing disapprobation of the meas­ures of the Government with a presumption to obtaining their alteration by lawful means, without breathtaking oregon attempting to excite hatred, contempt,or disaffection, bash not represent an discourtesy nether this section

3- Comments expressing disapprobation of the admin­istrative oregon different enactment of the Government without breathtaking oregon attempting to excite hatred, contempt oregon disaffection, bash not represent an discourtesy nether this section.

Point to ponder: What has been the humanities and law statement implicit the sedition law?

GS III- Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, improvement and employment.

The rupee fell to an all-time debased connected Monday, and is presently astatine 77.20 to the American dollar.

Key takeaways from the news:

-The rupee’s speech complaint vis-a-vis a peculiar currency, accidental the US dollar, tells america however galore rupees are required to bargain a US dollar. To bargain (import) a US merchandise oregon service, Indians request to archetypal bargain the dollars and past usage those dollars to bargain the product. The aforesaid holds existent for Americans buying thing from India.

-If the rupee’s speech complaint “falls”, it implies that buying American goods would go costlier. At the aforesaid time, Indian exporters whitethorn payment due to the fact that their goods present are much charismatic (read cheaper) to the American customers.

-In a free-market economy, the speech complaint is decided by the proviso and request for rupees and dollars.

Point to ponder: Why does the rupee autumn stay a worry?

Retail inflation astatine 8 years precocious of 7.79 per cent

Key takeaways from the news:

-India’s retail ostentation roseate by 7.79 per cent successful April, according to the latest information released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.

-Inflation successful nutrient items roseate by adjacent higher — 8.38 per cent successful April — according to the MoSPI’s Consumer Food Price Index (see Table 1 below).

– However, the biggest leap was registered successful substance prices, which roseate by astir 11 per cent successful April. This is simply a nonstop interaction of the higher crude lipid prices being passed done to the consumers successful the aftermath of the warfare successful Ukraine.

– Retail ostentation fundamentally refers to the complaint astatine which the wide terms level went up successful a peculiar period (April successful the existent instance) implicit what it was successful the aforesaid period a twelvemonth ago. The alteration is expressed arsenic a percentage. Retail ostentation besides refers to the prices faced by consumers, and not the ones prevailing successful the wholesale market.

-The retail ostentation level is the astir important measurement of ostentation successful India due to the fact that it is this ostentation complaint that India’s cardinal Bank, the RBI, targets to support terms stability. According to the law, the RBI is expected to support wide retail ostentation astatine the 4% level. However, the instrumentality allows RBI a leeway of 2 percent points. In different words, successful a peculiar month, retail ostentation tin alteration betwixt 2% and 6%.

Point to ponder: What is Inflation? What are the antithetic types of inflation?

GS III- Awareness successful the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intelligence spot rights.

1st representation of Milky Way’s immense achromatic hole

Key takeaways from the news:

-The Milky Way achromatic spread is called Sagittarius A(asterisk), adjacent the borderline of the Sagittarius and Scorpius constellations. It is 4 cardinal times much monolithic than our sun.

-Astronomers judge astir each galaxies, including our own, person these elephantine achromatic holes astatine their center, wherever airy and substance cannot escape, making it highly hard to get images of them.

-This is not the archetypal achromatic spread image. The aforesaid radical released the archetypal 1 successful 2019 and it was from a postulation 53 cardinal light-years away. The Milky Way achromatic spread is overmuch closer, astir 27,000 light-years away. A light-year is 5.9 trillion miles (9.5 trillion kilometers).

Point to ponder: What is simply a achromatic hole?